کامپوزیت های چاپ سه بعدی

در دهه‌های اخیر، فناوری پرینت سه بعدی کامپوزیت به سرعت در حال توسعه و پیشرفت بوده و جایگاه مهمی در صنایع مختلف پیدا کرده است. این فناوری به عنوان یک روش نوآورانه برای تولید اشیاء با ویژگی‌های منحصر به فرد شناخته می‌شود. در ساختار کامپوزیت، دو یا چند ماده با ویژگی‌های مختلف به یکدیگر ترکیب می‌شوند. یکی از این مواد به عنوان ماتریس عمل کرده و وظیفه حفظ ساختار را برعهده دارد، در حالی که دیگر ماده به عنوان ماده تقویت‌کننده عمل می‌کند و ویژگی‌های اضافی را به ارمغان می‌آورد.

هدف اصلی از استفاده از کامپوزیت‌ها، افزودن ویژگی‌های جدید به مواد اصلی (که معمولاً ماتریس نامیده می‌شود) و بهبود ویژگی‌های آن است. این امکان را فراهم می‌کند که مواد با خواص مکانیکی بهتر، مقاومت بالاتر در برابر حرارت و آتش، پایداری افزایش یافته، انعطاف‌پذیری بیشتر و ویژگی‌های دیگر به دست آورند.

کامپوزیت‌ها به شکل‌های مختلفی تولید می‌شوند، از جمله کامپوزیت ذراتی که در آن مواد تقویت‌کننده به صورت ذرات کوچک به ماتریس اضافه می‌شوند، کامپوزیت‌های الیافی که از الیاف کوتاه، الیاف بلند یا فیبرهای پیوسته تشکیل شده و کامپوزیت‌های لایه‌ای که از لایه‌های متعدد با خواص مختلف ساخته می‌شوند.

کامپوزیت‌های الیافی به ویژه در حوزه مهندسی مواد مورد توجه قرار گرفته‌اند زیرا این نوع کامپوزیت‌ها امکان تقویت مواد در جهات خاصی را فراهم می‌کنند. فیبر کربن و فیبر شیشه از مواد تقویت‌کننده محبوب در کامپوزیت‌های الیافی هستند و در تولید مواد افزودنی نیز کاربرد دارند. فیبر کربن به خاطر نسبت استحکام به وزن بسیار بالا و مقاومت بیشتر در برابر تنش‌ها مورد توجه واقع شده و برای ساخت اجزاء سبک و مقاوم به ویژه در صنایع هوافضا استفاده می‌شود.

پرینت سه بعدی کامپوزیت
پرینت سه بعدی کامپوزیت

استفاده از مواد کامپوزیت در فرآیند پرینت سه بعدی

مواد کامپوزیت در فرآیند پرینت سه بعدی به عنوان یک ابزار بسیار مؤثر در تولید قطعات سبک و مقاوم شناخته می‌شوند. این مواد امکان افزودن استحکام به قطعات بدون افزایش وزن را فراهم می‌کنند. در اینجا، دو نوع اصلی از تقویت کننده‌ها وجود دارد: الیاف کوتاه و الیاف پیوسته. در حالت اول، الیاف کوتاه که از تکه‌های کوچکی کمتر از یک میلی‌متر تشکیل شده‌اند، با ترموپلاستیک‌های معمولی ترکیب می‌شوند تا سختی و استحکام قطعات بهبود یابد. این الیاف کوتاه می‌توانند با ترموپلاستیک‌هایی نظیر نایلون، ABS یا PLA ترکیب شوند. هر تولید کننده ممکن است میزان مختلفی از الیاف کوتاه را به پلیمر پلاستیکی خود افزوده و ترکیب کند، که به نتیجه تولید تارهای قوی با خواص متفاوت منجر می‌شود. همچنین باید توجه داشت که کیفیت چاپ نیز تحت تأثیر میزان الیاف کوتاه قرار می‌گیرد و در مقادیر بالاتر از یک آستانه معین، سطح پرینت سه بعدی از دست می‌دهد.

تقویت مداوم باعث به دست آوردن بهترین عملکرد ممکن می‌شود. فرآیند ساخت قطعات کامپوزیت با الیاف پیوسته نسبت به الیاف کوتاه چالش‌های بیشتری دارد، زیرا الیاف باید به صورت مداوم در ترموپلاستیک حالت مایع ترکیب شوند. الیاف همچنین می‌توانند با استفاده از تکنیک‌های طراحی که استحکام قطعات را به وزن و مصرف مواد بهینه می‌کنند، رسوب داده شوند. این تکنیک‌ها به نام DfAM (طراحی برای تولید افزودنی) هم شناخته می‌شوند. سازندگان معتقدند که با تقویت مداوم الیاف، می‌توان قطعاتی با استحکام مشابه فلز تولید کرد.

کامپوزیت های محبوب در پرینت سه بعدی: الیاف کربن، فایبرگلاس، و کولار

از جمله الیاف مورد استفاده در بازار، الیاف کربن به عنوان یکی از محبوب‌ترین‌ها شناخته می‌شوند. همچنین، فایبرگلاس، یک نوع پلاستیک تقویت شده با الیاف شیشه، و کولار، یک فیبر مصنوعی مقاوم در برابر حرارت و مقاومت در برابر ضربه دارند و به عنوان جایگزین‌های مناسب در صنعت بهره‌برداری می‌شوند. فایبرگلاس به عنوان یک ماده اقتصادی برای افزایش استحکام پلاستیک استفاده می‌شود و کولار به دلیل توانایی خم شدن به جای شکستن، در مقابل ضربات مقاومت دارد. همچنین، مواد کامپوزیت دیگری نیز وجود دارند که به علاوه به قدرت‌های مکانیکی، دارای ظاهر زیبایی نیز هستند. به عنوان مثال، می‌توان الیاف چوب، ذرات سرامیکی و الیاف گیاهی را با PLA ترکیب کرد.

یک قطعه پرینت سه بعدی با استفاده از تقویت فیبر کربن، که منجر به نسبت استحکام به وزن بالاتر و مصرف مواد کمتر می شود (اعتبار عکس: 9TLabs)
یک قطعه پرینت سه بعدی با استفاده از تقویت فیبر کربن، که منجر به نسبت استحکام به وزن بالاتر و مصرف مواد کمتر می شود (اعتبار عکس: 9TLabs)

تکنولوژی‌های چاپ سه بعدی در کار با مواد کامپوزیت

در تولید افزودنی، مواد کامپوزیت به صورت اساسی به صورت فیلامنت ها و فیلامنت ها وجود دارند، بنابراین اصولاً در فرآیند چاپ سه بعدی با استفاده از فناوری Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) استفاده می‌شوند. با این حال، روش‌هایی برای استفاده از کامپوزیت‌های فلزی در فرآیند لیزری، به عنوان مثال فرآیند لیزری پراش (LPBF)، نیز در حال توسعه هستند. به عنوان یک مثال، موسسه Fraunhofer یک فرآیند برای استفاده از جوشکاری رسوب لیزری (Laser Metal Deposition – LMD) با کامپوزیت‌های فلزی توسعه داده است. این نشان می‌دهد که تولید مواد افزودنی کامپوزیت در حال حاضر در بازار به توجه زیادی دارد و منتظر ماندن از فناوری‌های بیشتری برای چاپ سه بعدی کامپوزیت در آینده است.

به طور کلی، تکنولوژی‌های چاپ سه بعدی کامپوزیت بستگی به نوع کامپوزیت مورد استفاده دارند. کامپوزیت‌های حاوی الیاف کوتاه می‌توانند به سادگی با استفاده از فرآیند معمولی FDM چاپ شوند، زیرا فیلامنت‌ها قبلاً شامل الیاف هستند. همچنین، کیفیت چاپ تحت تأثیر مقدار الیاف خرد شده در ماتریس قرار می‌گیرد. الیاف کوتاه به طور یکنواخت کل قطعه را تقویت می‌کنند. با این حال، بیش از حد خرد شدن الیاف می‌تواند به کاهش کیفیت سطح قطعه چاپ شده منجر شود. از سوی دیگر، چاپ سه بعدی با الیاف پیوسته فرآیند پیچیده‌تری است که به دو نازل برای چاپ همزمان نیاز دارد. عموماً یک نازل ترموپلاستیک و دیگری فیبر را اکسترود می‌کند. یکی از چاپگرهای که این امکان را فراهم می‌کند، چاپگر Markforged Mark Two است. این چاپگر مواد فیبر بلند را در قسمت‌هایی که با استفاده از فرآیند FDM ایجاد می‌شوند وارد می‌کند. این کار باعث می‌شود قطعات فقط در مناطقی که واقعاً نیاز به تقویت دارند، تقویت شوند.

چاپ کامپوزیت‌ها با FDM: نکات مهم و توصیه‌ها

یک نکته مهم در مورد چاپ FDM با کامپوزیت‌ها این است که اغلب نیاز به نازل‌های با قطر بزرگتری دارند. به عبارت دیگر، تولیدکننده مشخص می‌کند که کدام تنظیمات باید انجام شود. برای مثال، برای فیبرگلاس، نازل باید حداقل قطر 0.6 میلیمتری داشته باشد، برای فیبر کربن 0.4 میلیمتر و برای کولار، می‌توان از قطر 0.6 میلیمتری شروع کرده و به تدریج به 0.4 میلیمتر کاهش داد. اگر کامپوزیت دارای ذرات چوب باشد، باید قطر آن را بین 0.6 تا 0.8 میلیمتر تنظیم کرد.

علاوه بر این، باید توجه داشت که فیلامنت های کامپوزیت ممکن است منجر به افزایش سایش در انتهای داغ و قسمت‌های اکسترودر شوند. برای جلوگیری از این امر، استفاده از نازل‌های مقاومت به خصوص برای فیبرهای کربن، فایبرگلاس و کولار توصیه می‌شود. همچنین، مهم است که مسیر اکسترودر به خوبی تنظیم شود تا خیلی طولانی نباشد. علاوه بر این اقدامات احتیاطی، باید سرعت چاپ را نیز به دلیل ویسکوزیته بالاتر فیلامنت های مواد کامپوزیت کاهش داد و نباید از سرعت توصیه شده برای ماده پایه استفاده کرد. با این حال، برخلاف الزامات مربوط به تنظیمات فشار، مواد کامپوزیت مزیت‌های خاصی ارائه می‌دهند.

برنامه‌های کاربردی با استفاده از چاپ سه بعدی کامپوزیت

استفاده از مواد تقویت‌کننده در فرآیند چاپ سه بعدی به خصوص توانایی تعدادی از شرکت‌های نوپا در حوزه فناوری چاپ سه بعدی را گسترش داده است. در دهه‌های اخیر، شاهد رشد نمایی در تعداد ماشین‌ها و فناوری‌هایی بوده‌ایم که برای ایجاد برنامه‌های کاربردی جدید، به خصوص در صنایعی همچون هوافضا و خودروسازی، به بازار عرضه شده‌اند. کامپوزیت‌های حاوی فیبر کربن، از محبوب‌ترین و گسترده‌ترین انواع مواد کامپوزیت در صنعت چاپ سه بعدی هستند، به خصوص در کاربردهایی که نیاز به قطعات اولیه، قطعات خودرو، اجزای سبک وزن و غیره دارند. فیبر کربن همچنین در حوزه ورزشی به طور روزافزون استفاده می‌شود. ورزشکاران برای دستیابی به دوچرخه های سبک‌تر و سریع‌تر، به دوچرخه‌های کربنی متوجه می‌شوند و همچنین در رشته‌های متنوعی از ورزش‌های موتوری، فرمول 1، تنیس و قایق‌رانی از این مواد بهره می‌برند.

به طور واقعی، بازار کامپوزیت‌ها در حال گسترش است و ترکیب مواد جدید امکان ایجاد کاربردهای جدیدی را فراهم می‌کند. این کامپوزیت‌ها همچنین به مواد فنی افزوده می‌شوند. به عنوان مثال، محققان چینی در سال گذشته برای بررسی مزایای افزودن فیبر کربن به ترموپلاستیک‌های با عملکرد بالا مانند PEEK تحقیقاتی انجام دادند. مثال دیگری از پیشرفت‌ها در این زمینه ایجاد کامپوزیت‌های الماس است. معمولاً استفاده از الماس در فرآیند ساخت مواد افزودنی به دلیل سختی بیش از حد دشوار است، اما با ایجاد کامپوزیت‌های الماس می‌توان از ویژگی‌های این ماده برای بسیاری از ابزارهای مقاوم (مانند ابزارهای معدنی، حفاری یا ماشین‌کاری) و همچنین ایمپلنت‌های پزشکی بهره برد.

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نرم‌افزار Anisoprint می‌تواند انواع مختلفی از پرکننده‌های تقویت‌شده با فیبر پیوسته را تولید کند (اعتبار عکس: Anisoprint)

کاربردهای فیلامنت کامپوزیت در ایران

فیلامنت‌های کامپوزیت برای پرینترهای سه بعدی در ایران همچنان در مراحل نخستین توسعه و استفاده قرار دارند. این مواد، به عنوان یک فرصت جذاب در صنعت چاپ سه بعدی، در حال مورد بررسی و آزمایش برای مصارف متنوعی می‌باشند. اینجا تعدادی از کاربردهای احتمالی فیلامنت‌های کامپوزیت در ایران را می‌آوریم:

قطعات خودرو:

فیلامنت‌های کامپوزیت می‌توانند به تولید قطعات خودرو با ویژگی‌های سبک‌تر و مقاومت بالاتر کمک کنند. این تکنولوژی می‌تواند در بهینه‌سازی وزن خودروها و افزایش کارایی مصرف سوخت موتورها مؤثر باشد.

صنعت هوافضا و هواپیما:

از فیلامنت‌های کامپوزیت می‌توان برای تولید قطعاتی با ویژگی‌های سبک و مقاومت بالا برای استفاده در هواپیماها، ماهواره‌ها و سایر وسایل فضایی بهره‌برداری کرد.

صنعت نفت و گاز:

در این صنعت، قطعات کامپوزیت می‌توانند در تولید قطعاتی با مقاومت در برابر شرایط محیطی سخت و متغیر مورد استفاده قرار گیرند. این مواد می‌توانند لوله‌ها، شیرآلات، و سایر اجزا را تقویت کنند.

پزشکی:

در صنعت پزشکی، فیلامنت‌های کامپوزیت می‌توانند برای تولید قطعات ایمپلنت پزشکی مورد استفاده قرار گیرند، از جمله استخوان‌های مصنوعی و اجزای داخلی ایمپلنت‌های پزشکی.

ورزش و تفریح:

این فناوری می‌تواند در تولید تجهیزات ورزشی مانند خفاش‌های کریکت، دوچرخه‌های سبک و وسایل ورزشی موتوری با ویژگی‌های برتر و کیفیت عالی به کار رود.

هنر و طراحی:

هنرمندان و طراحان می‌توانند از این مواد برای ایجاد آثار هنری و طراحی‌های خاص استفاده کنند و به خلقیت خود زندگی بیافزایند.

تحقیق و توسعه:

دانشگاه‌ها و مراکز تحقیقاتی می‌توانند از این فیلامنت‌ها برای تولید نمونه‌ها و پروتوتایپ‌های تحقیقاتی بهره‌برداری کنند و به پیشرفت علم و تکنولوژی کمک کنند.

مهم است تا توجه داشت که توسعه و تولید فیلامنت‌های کامپوزیت در ایران هنوز در مراحل ابتدایی است و نیاز به تحقیقات بیشتر و توسعه فناوری دارد. با این حال، با توجه به پتانسیل بالای این مواد در صنایع مختلف، ممکن است در آینده نقش مهمی در توسعه صنعت چاپ سه بعدی و سایر صنایع ایفا کنند.

3dRD

شرکت صنعت سامه با نام تجاری 3dRD بزرگترین و تخصصی ترین تولیدکننده پرینترهای سه بعدی در ایران

به اشتراک بگذارید:

دیدگاهتان را بنویسید

نشانی ایمیل شما منتشر نخواهد شد. بخش‌های موردنیاز علامت‌گذاری شده‌اند *

این فیلد را پر کنید
این فیلد را پر کنید
لطفاً یک نشانی ایمیل معتبر بنویسید.
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